In order to establish the vibration standards in the frequency range of 0.5 - 10 kHz, two primary calibration systems using laser interferometry are constructed and related calibration techniques are studied. Using the constructed systems absolute calibration of the standard reference accelerometers are performed, and various uncertainty parameters are analyzed. The relative expanded uncertainty of the calibration results is estimated less than 0.5% with 95.5% of confidence level (coverage factor k = 2) over the frequency range of 0.5 Hz - 10 kHz. The reliability of the constructed vibration calibration system and techniques was confirmed through the APMP international comparison on the vibration accelerometer.
In this thesis, we propose and demonstrate a significantly improved multiple reflection interferometer for the high accuracy measurement of vibration amplitude of a small area, having a simpler structure for an easy alignment. The multiple reflection system employs a right-angle prism and a convex lens, which is located in the probe beam path of a Michelson interferometer. An additional advantage is that the number of reflection can be easily changed in order to adjust the sensitivity and dynamic range of the interferometer. In order to evaluate the performance of the multiple reflection interferometer as a function of reflection number, the Bessel function null method is used where one measures the vibration amplitudes that produce null optical signal at the driving vibration frequency. They correspond to zeros of the first order Bessel function $J_1$. The measurements were taken at the frequency of 1250 Hz for different number of reflections ranging from 3 to 15, and the results were used to obtain calibration factors.
For the accelerometer calibration in higher frequency rages above 10 kHz, a piezoelectric vibration exciter is fabricated. Its performance characteristics are evaluated using the Michelson interferometer and Mach-Zehnder fiber-optic interferometer. Also the applicabilities for the precision accelerometer calibration are discussed.