This dissertation contains two major parts. One is to test the hypothesis generated by the global model of the technological development process with special reference to Pharmaceutical Industry and Synthetic Fiber Industry in Korea.
The other is to test the hypothesis based on the association between contextual variables and the technological development process.
The proposed model includes the three-stage processes of initiation, internalization and generation, as well as some related behavioural patterns such as the level of transferred technology, technology acquistion mode, technology element mastered, growing tendency of technological independency, etc, in each stage.
The major propositions based on the global perspective are as follow.
Promise 1. Most new technologies are developed in DCs and become mature (Long-term and dynamic process of technological innovation) in DCs. Then they are transferred to LDCs via different channels (Short-term and static process of international technology transfer), and finally the transferred technologies are developed and mastered (Long-term and dynamic process of technological mastery) in LDCs.
Promise 2. The technological development in LDSs follows certain macro-level stages such as the initiation stage, internalization stage, and generation stage at the national, industrial, and firm levels. The technological mastery for each "unit technology" or productive segment follows certain micro-level phases such as the acquisition phase, assimilation phase, and improvement phase.
Proposition 1. The level of transferred technologies rises as LDCs advance in the stages of development. More specifically, old and mature technologies are transferred during the initiation stage, and new and high technologies are transferred during the internalization stage.
Proposition 2. The channels and patterns of technology transfer are different according to the development stages and the types of industrial technology. More Specifically, the technologies of equipment-based and product-based industries are transferred mostly via nonformal channels at the initiation stage and mostly via formal channels at the internalization stage, while the technologies of process-based industries are transferred mostly via formal channels regardless of the development stage.
Proposition 3. Old and mature technologies are transferred mainly via non-formal channels, and new and high technologies are transferred mainly via formal channels.
Proposition 4. The contents and target of technological mastery are different among the development stages. More specifically,
(a) Operations technology is mastered in the initiation stage,
(b) Production-related technology such as manufacturing equipment and plant engineering is mastered in the early internalization stage,
(c) Design technology for product and process improvement is mastered in the latter internalization stage.
(d) R&D/innovation capability is prerequisite to entering the generation stage.
Proposition 5. The importance and dependency on internal technological capabilities increase along the development stages.
Proposition 6. The pattern and efficiency of technological development are determined by social, cultural and educational factors, government intervention, business strategy, technological capabilities, and resource capabilities.
The datas used for validating the global model are collected from 51 pharmaceutical manufacturers and 11 Synthetic fiber manufacturers through in-depth interviews and questionnaires. To test the hypothesis based on the global perspective, a cross-tabulation analysis, ANOVA and t-test are employed.
The major findings are as follow,
(a) The major propositions of the global model are well supported by the empirical validation in the context of Korean pharmaceutical and synthetic fiber industries
(b) In the comparative study for the empirical validation of the global model on machine tools and automobile industries besides the two sample industries, the major propositions are generally supported.
(c) Contextral variables, such as firm size, corporate strategy, resource capability technological capability, entry type, entry time, environmental munificence and competitive situation are very important along the technology development stage, especially, in the internalization stage.
(d) One of the major practical implications is that the choice of the optimal channels of technology transfer, assimilation, accumulation and internalization of acquired technologies are very important ingredient of technological development.
(e) In addition, it is found that the global model should be developed suitable to the contextual variables. For any model, some variations and reversals exist. Further theoretical and empirical studies like learning approach on the global perspective model under the various contextual variables will be necessary and very helpful in understanding the nature of TDPs in LDCs and in establishing sound science and technology policies and corporate/business strategy.